This summer, let’s go cycling: the green trend of cycling travel

The pandemic has put ecological issues back at the center of discussions and in particular our travel habits. It is therefore logical that the trend of cycle tourism is exploding. Shall we get started?

The right alternative for traveling galore? Get in the saddle! An ecological alternative to polluting trips by plane or car, some are ready to travel thousands of kilometers across Europe and beyond, with their hands on the handlebars. Like journalist and Instagram content creator Laurianne Melierre, who has been cycling around France with her friend Marion on and off for three years. Together, they created the FreeTheCycle Instagram account, to share their adventures on the road. And show everyone that there is no need to be super sporty, super trained or even to go super far to have fun on a bike.

In a recent story, Laurianne explains that “traveling by bike can be a day like it can be a year”. Cycling is an activity open to as many people as possible, thanks to which everyone can follow their route according to their profile and their desires, including small budgets. Want to get started this summer? Here are our tips for setting off on an adventure, one pedal stroke at a time. Because if there is nothing simpler than traveling with your bicycle, it cannot be improvised.

Cycle touring, instructions for use

Go on an adventure without asking any questions, do you like it? With your feet on the pedals and helmet on your head, you’re ready to roll to destinations you tended to ignore before the pandemic. However, setting off on a bicycle on a whim takes a little bit of preparation. First of all, be aware that traveling alone or with others requires a different organization. If you’d rather go solo, FreeTheCycle offers these tips.

1. Prepare for the adventure. First, you must favor the cycle routes (lanes reserved for bicycles and appropriately signposted), anticipate your nights by booking accommodation on your way, and look at some activities in the area that would be of interest to you.

2. Test yourself before you go. In addition, Marion and Laurianne recommend testing 2 or 3 nights, if you are traveling alone for the first time.

3. Find the right place to sleep. Safety question, if you go solo, avoid the tent in the middle of nature, you never know, it is better to plan your night in a youth hostel or a campsite. You will be more sheltered from danger and it will be more comfortable. On the other hand, if you are traveling with others, sleeping under the stars or in a tent can be a fun and economical option. Unfortunately, you are not allowed to camp or bivouac anywhere. To help you avoid a fine of 1,500 euros, here are the conditions according to article R-111-32 of the town planning code: “Camping is freely practiced, outside the influence of roads and public thoroughfares, under the conditions set by this sub-section, with the agreement of the person who has the use of the land, subject, where applicable, to the opposition of the owner”.

4. What about eating, then? It is recommended to buy products with little packaging, to reduce your waste and not have to struggle to find trash cans on the way. Bread and a piece of cheese or a tin of sardines, it’s perfect because it doesn’t mind the heat. Also, take some fruit. A good idea: take Tupperware with you. It is often possible to ask in the lodging or the hotel which lodges you if they cannot prepare you friction for the midday. A tabbouleh, a pasta salad, a ratatouille … this allows you to vary the pleasures day after day. Regarding meat, dry sausage is very easy to store in the open air. Don’t forget the snacks either. Besides fruits, dried fruits, and cereal bars. Will give you an energy boost for a long time.

Where to go? Our cycling tourism destination ideas

If you live in the North and want to go to the South, you will still have to plan a short train ride, unless you want to make a trip of several days. It is therefore important to plan your route and to plan a good organization to know where to sleep and where to go to avoid the tile.

The Loire à Vélo is one of the most popular places for cycle tourism. Everything is perfectly organized (signage, dedicated lane, accommodation, repair, and rental shops, etc.). Yet other (less frequented) destinations are waiting for you, such as the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel or the wonders of the Camargue. To find an unusual and less frequented destination, we advise you to use the francevelotourisme site or the book Slow Vélo by Bérangère Florin and Eugénie Triebel. For example, the two authors offer you an escape from Strasbourg to Colmar on the route of the vineyards of the region. Everything is detailed there, the length of the stay, the number of kilometers per stage, a practical sheet, and their logbook. Ideal for all cycle touring enthusiasts looking for something new.

Luggage and equipment: leave nothing to chance

When it comes to luggage, the keyword is sharing. The more you share hygiene products, the lighter you will travel. “The most important thing to pack is the weight/volume/utility ratio”, we can read on FreeTheCycle. It will be very easy knowing that, to wash your clothes, you will undoubtedly find laundromats in case of real need. Do not hesitate to take some laundry capsules with you. Alternatively, according to the count, you can choose to hand wash most of your stuff using natural multi-purpose soap, again access to water in cemeteries is straightforward. Also, opt for merino T-shirts. This wool, very light and breathable, retains very little odor. We can therefore wear the same garment several days in a row before having to wash it. To reduce dirty laundry, separate clothes made for pedaling and those for the evening. And remember that you are going on an adventure. Reduce the exchange as much as possible.

What equipment to bring for a cycling adventure?

A rule already: try to borrow or rent before thinking of buying.

Here is a list of the basic equipment for cycling touring:

– A pair of gloves (or mittens to protect the palms of your hands)

– Well-breathable clothing suitable for cycling in hot conditions

– A reflective garment (vest yellow safety jacket ) – A jacket with hood and made with a waterproof and breathable membrane. If it starts to rain, you can quickly get very cold.

– A helmet (light and breathable if possible)

– Sunglasses (both to protect yourself from the sun and to avoid getting debris or an insect in the eye)

– Front and rear lights: 200 lumens or more for the main lamp

– A bicycle pump (mandatory)

– An inner tube repair kit (patch, glue, and tire iron) and especially learn how to do it before leaving!

– Two air chambers (it’s safer)

– A survival blanket (in case of injury, bad weather …)

– A mobile phone with a charger and an external 10,000 mAh battery

– A water reserve of 2 liters

– A first aid kit

– Saddlebags to take it all (especially not to have everything on your back, it’s hell)

So when do you plan to ride?

Visibility of children in traffic

In the darker months of the year, children must be visible in traffic. Rain or fog creates additional dangers on the roads. With these tips, your children are safe on the move in autumn and winter.

Reflective material increases visibility in the dark;

A safety vest must meet standard EN ISO 20471 or EN 1150;

The school satchel must meet the DIN 58124 standard.

Children are particularly at risk in the autumn and winter months: in bad weather and the dark, they are often barely visible to drivers – especially not if they are not wearing light-colored, reflective materials. A dark-clad pedestrian can only be recognized by a driver from a distance of around 25 meters in poor visibility. For comparison: the stopping distance of a car in an emergency braking from 50 km / h is about 28 meters – too long to come to a stop in time in an emergency in front of a road user at risk.

However, if a pedestrian wears clothing with reflective materials,

visibility improves up to 140 meters.

When buying reflective material, pay attention to the norm

If you are out and about in the dark, you should wear shoes and jackets with integrated reflective material. A safety vest is worn over clothing also

significantly increases visibility. The material must meet the EN ISO 20471 or EN 1150 standards. There are also reflectors for sewing and gluing. When buying a school satchel, parents should make sure that it complies with the DIN 58124 standard.

If you cycle to work or school, you should also check the lights on the bike and attach the required reflectors. You can find more information about roadworthy bicycles here.

Mutual consideration

Drivers can also help improve road safety by adapting their driving style to the visibility and driving more slowly. Visibility can also be significantly improved with clean windscreens and headlights as well as functional wiper blades.

Tips from the ADAC Foundation for a safe journey to school

In addition to reflectors on clothing, school bags, and bicycles,

groups of joggers, for example, are a good way for schoolchildren to get to school safely. A group of up to 12 children, accompanied by one or two adults, walk to school together in the morning.

Best Coat For Large Size Dogs: The Best Choices For All Budgets

What’s the main thing that confuses you the most? It’s a buying process, isn’t it?

Buying a new Large Size Dog Coat is not that easy. It takes a lot of effort and going through different variations to achieve the end goal. If you are currently looking forward to expert advice on buying the best Plus Size Dog Coat allow us to help you with the most preferable options.

Our team of experts has extracted the highest rated 2021 Large Dog Coat available on the market.

Don’t risk your hard-earned money, think twice before investing, and make the decision wisely. Our readers are very valuable to us, we fully understand our readers need and that is why should send a lot of time just for researching, reviewing and comparing different Coats For Large Size Dogs.


STYLISH DOG COAT – Unique design keeps your dog fashionable and comfortable, perfect for walking, running, hunting, or hiking during the cold months.

WATERPROOF & WINDPROOF – Waterproof and windproof outer fabric and super warm fleece lining for extra softness and comfort, keep your dogs warm in the cold winter/snow. With adjustable belly band, for a better fit of the body to stay warm.

EASY TO PUT ON AND OFF – Features hook-and-loop straps on the chest and neck for easy wearing and adjustment, enough room for the dog to grow, no need to force the dog to lift his legs.

REFLECTIVE & VERSATILE – The reflective stripe on the sides provides extra visibility for night walks, outdoors, or while traveling. With a leash hole at the back, the collar can be used inside the jacket. Machine washable.

Consult the prices

Pricing is the major aspect that everyone should take into consideration when finalizing their final Large Size Dog Coat product. Not all of the Plus Size Dog Coats available on the market come with the same price tag, nor are all of them presented with the same features.

It is also best to determine the range of Large Size Dog Coats available in the market before going out for the final purchase. Once you’re done with it, be sure to check out and compare the products that most closely match your set of preferences.

It is always advisable for you to check your budget first before going ahead with the purchase. If the budget allows, be sure to check out a product that still provides you with the most premium and advanced features.

But if budget matters a lot to you, be sure to go with the cheapest option that matches your preferences well.

Are you going away for a long weekend? Check how to prepare your car!

The Vehicle Inspection Station in Dzierżążno presents a guide on how to prepare a car for a long weekend trip!

First of all – the validity of the registration inspection and insurance.

Open the registration certificate of your car and check when its technical inspection is valid. If their validity has expired or is due to expire during the planned vacation, be sure to visit the nearest vehicle inspection station before departure. Are you wondering which Vehicle Inspection Station in the Kartuzy area to inspect? Choose the one that has been best rated by customers – it is located in Dzierżążno, by the provincial road, at 10A Kartuska Street. On-site, our experts will check, among other things: the effectiveness of the brakes, the condition of the steering system and suspension, the effectiveness of lighting, and the condition of the tires.

You don’t have to make an appointment with us – just come!

You can also pay by card without any problems.   Although the days have been getting longer recently, it is still worth remembering about the correct setting of the lights – at our stations, you can do it completely for free!

What should you check yourself before leaving?

Oil Level  Checking and topping up the oil level is an absolute minimum that you need to do before going on a long trip. It does not matter whether the car is brand new or slightly older – the oil level must always be correct.

By the way, it is worth taking a look at the levels of other operating fluids – washer fluid, brake fluid, and cooling fluid.

Necessary equipment  The warning triangle and the fire extinguisher are mandatory equipment for a car in Poland. It is also always worth equipping the car with a decent first aid kit, reflective vests, a towing rope, and jumper cables.

Travel comfort Check wipers and windows. Make sure the feathers are not chipped and cracked. If so, the wipers must be replaced. Dirty windshields or headlights reduce the comfort and safety of travel – do you want to wash your car? We invite you to one of our car washes!

Lighting  Check the efficiency of the headlamps and, if necessary, replace the bulbs with stronger ones. It is also necessary to correctly set the lights so as not to dazzle other traffic users.

Ventilation Contamination of the ventilation ducts reduces their patency and results in inefficient operation of air vents and air conditioning. It is a good idea to vacuum the sewers and outlets inside the car, clean and dry the pollen filters. It is also worth thinking about cleaning the air conditioning system.

A road safety morning for the young people

Friday, six young people from the Medico-Educational Institute (IME) of Pont-Soutain were introduced to road safety during the morning.

For Noa, Nolan, Doria, Joana, Maxime, and Emeric, the morning began with a little booster shot from two policemen from Parthenay, including Pascal Arnoux, head of the municipal police of Parthenay, on the different rules on the road and the meaning of the signs. They were accompanied by Sonia Yandané, municipal councilor responsible for road safety. After this revision of the Highway Code, the young people were able to familiarize themselves with the bikes rented from Vélo Gâtine by practicing on a bike course created for the occasion on the IME evolution platform.

The end of the morning ended with a little bike ride expected by all, in the center of Parthenay, after each participant donned the essential safety equipment such as a reflective vest and helmet. This morning was one of the most successful, both for the young people, but also for Aurane Riffé, organizer of this event.

“This little morning cycling road safety is part of a training project for the vocational diploma in youth, popular education, and sport, option Activities for all, and social animation (BPJEPS APTAS) that I am completing this year, at the Center for Resources, Expertise and Sports Performance (CREPS) in Poitiers,” explains Aurane Riffé. “This one-and-a-half-year training takes place in an apprenticeship, within the IME directed by Catherine Lafoix.”

High visibility vest: when to wear it and how many to bring in the car

In our cars, it is necessary to carry various mandatory safety elements. One of them is the emergency triangles, which we have talked about in-depth, explaining how and when to use them. Another essential element for our safety, and mandatory equipment in all vehicles, is a high-visibility reflective vest. When should this high visibility vest be used? How many high visibility vests should you take in the car? Can I be fined if I don’t wear a high visibility vest? In this article, we solve all your doubts about this security element.

Is it mandatory to wear a high visibility vest in the car? How should the vest be?

The answer is a resounding yes. The high visibility vest is a mandatory security element in every vehicle. It is mandatory to carry it in the car since 2004, and its obligation is included in the Traffic Regulations of January 23, 2004, along with that of the emergency triangles. The vest must be red, yellow, or orange, and must equip at least two horizontal reflective bands, at least 5 centimeters. It must be certified according to the European standard EN-471 for use in tourism vehicles and industrial vehicles.

When should the high visibility vest be used?

If we are forced to stop our vehicle on an extra-urban road, either on the road itself or on the shoulder, we must get out of the car with the high-visibility vest on. Yes or yes. The most common situations in which we will be forced to use it will be in the event of a breakdown or accident, but we must always wear it if we leave the vehicle on any type of road, motorway or freeway. We must wear it when we go to put the emergency triangles and if we are standing or behind the guardrail – waiting for roadside assistance.

If it is winter and we must put the chains on the car, we must do it with a high visibility vest on. Think that thanks to this vest, we are visible to other drivers at distances of up to 150 meters. The high visibility vest can be carried stored anywhere in the vehicle, but we must leave the car with it on. Therefore, the trunk or spare wheel well would not be the best place to store it. The back of the seat, the door storage compartment, or the glove compartment are the most ideal places for storage.

The objective of the vest is for us to be visible to other drivers, both day and night, avoiding endangering our physical integrity.

How many reflective vests should we take in the car?

An important detail that we must take into account is that all people who leave the vehicle must necessarily wear a high visibility vest. In other words, we must wear a vest for each occupant of the vehicle – it doesn’t matter if we drive a seven-seater minivan. This is an important rule and requires those who do not have a high-visibility vest on. This provision should only be violated if occupants without vests are in physical danger – for example, if the car is smoking or on fire, or they are exposed to extreme weather.

Can I be fined for not wearing the high visibility vest?

If you leave the vehicle on an extra-urban road without a reflective vest on, you are exposed to a financial penalty of up to 200 euros – without removing points from your driving license. If you do not have a reflective vest in your car, you can purchase a vest approved for use in cars at just over eight euros.

Parents love this reflective coat that helps kids stay safe in the dark

With winter in full swing, the evenings are getting much darker. So it can be easy for parents to worry when they walk home from school.

When it’s dark outside, it can be hard for motorists to spot pedestrians, which is why reflective clothing with reflective fabric can be very beneficial at this time of year. But Next have got you covered.

Parents are very impressed with Next’s Fleece Lined Padded Jacket, which is available for ages 3 – 16 years. It’s made with a reflective print and is available in black, camouflage, navy, and mustard.

According to Next, the coat is, “Made from a heat-sealed fabric, this padded jacket features fleece-lined pockets and a reflective print at the back.”

Fleece Lined Padded Jacket

Made from a heat-sealed fabric, this padded jacket features fleece-lined pockets and a reflective print at the back.

It also features fleece-lined pockets, it’s shower resistant, and suitable for cold weather, so the perfect coat for your children to wear as it starts getting cold, wet and windy outside.

But it’s the reflective print that’s impressed shoppers this winter. Speaking about it on Extreme Couponing and Bargains UK, one mum wrote, “Such a simple idea, why aren’t all kids jackets made like this for the winter, it would save so many lives!”

Reviews on Next’s website have been very positive too, with it receiving 4.5/5 from customers.

One wrote, “Son needs a plain black coat for school. This was perfect and great value”

Another said, “Perfect fit and excellent quality. Good value for money. Perfect school coat.”

And a third wrote, “Nice quality coat for school – warm and shower proof.”

You can even get a reflective pom beanie hat to go alongside it, to ensure your children are warm and safe out there this winter.

Does reflective and fluorescent clothing make us safer?

We cyclists are the most vulnerable of all road users. We’re up to 30 times more likely to get injured on the road than drivers are, and up to 18 times more likely to get killed.

They’re concerning stats, and it’s up to all of us to ensure we’re as visible as possible (and therefore as safe as possible) while riding on the road. But how do we do that? Is it simply a case of wearing brighter clothing? And what about when it comes to riding at night?

Every cyclist has a story to tell of the time a driver didn’t see them, leading to a scary near-miss or worse, a crash. And if you’ve been riding for any length of time, you’ve probably been involved in several such incidents yourself.

This experience isn’t just borne out anecdotally — research suggests that the majority of crashes involving a cyclist and motor vehicle are a case of “looked but failed to see”. That is, incidents where the driver might well have been looking in the direction of the cyclist, but failed to recognize that what they were seeing was a cyclist. There’s a reason SMIDSY – “Sorry mate, I didn’t see you” – has become such a familiar acronym among cyclists.

Several factors can make a cyclist hard to spot, including ‘visual clutter’ on or beside the roadway, the light conditions at the time, and, crucially, the conspicuity of the rider.


There have been many studies in recent decades investigating how “visibility aids” affect the ease with which drivers can spot cyclists on the road. In a 2009 literature review, nine papers were found that compared the visibility of fluorescent and non-fluorescent colors. All but one of those nine trials found that fluorescent colors were more visible to drivers. Fluorescent clothing in red, yellow, and orange — colors that contrast significantly with the riding environment — was found to be most effective1.

Another paper, published in 2007 by researchers in New Zealand, compared the number of times cyclists spent off work as a result of crashes involving a motor vehicle. They found that riders who never wore fluorescent cycling kit spent eight times as much time away from work as riders who always wore such clothing.

Studies like these seem to point in a clear direction: riders who wear fluorescent cycling gear aren’t just more visible to drivers, they’re also less likely to be hit and injured.

But this is only part of the story because such findings are only relevant when considering riding in daylight.


Whether it’s commuting to and from work in the winter months or heading out for a pre-dawn bunch ride, most of us do at least some of our riding in the dark. And as you might expect (or may have witnessed first-hand) riding at night is more dangerous than during the day. Some 35% of all fatal cycling crashes happen at night, despite the fact, only about 10% of cyclists ride after dark.

While fluorescent clothing is effective at increasing rider visibility during the day, it’s largely useless at night.

During the day, fluorescent clothing takes ultraviolet (UV) light from the sunlight we can’t see — and converts it into the light we can see. The result is an increase in the total amount of visible light that’s reflected off the clothing, giving fluo clothing a brighter appearance. This is particularly the case in low-light conditions, around dawn and dusk.

At night, there’s no UV sunlight to convert, so the fluorescent material isn’t effective. And so for cyclists to be as visible as possible in the dark, reflective, rather than fluorescent clothing, is required.


It’s intuitively obvious that reflective clothing with reflective fabric makes us more visible in low-light conditions. Rather than being absorbed by our clothing, light from car headlights and streetlights is reflected nearby drivers, making us more visible than we otherwise would have been.

Jackets with reflective paneling are the most common piece of reflective gear used by cyclists but, perhaps surprisingly, they don’t seem to be the most effective.

In the late 2000s and early 2010s, Professor Joanne Wood from the Queensland University of Technology leads a team of researchers focused on cyclist visibility and the benefits of reflective clothing. In a study published in 2010, Wood and her team tested the night-time visibility of a range of different clothing setups used by cyclists:

a) a black tracksuit

b) a black tracksuit and a fluorescent yellow cycling vest with no reflective markings

c) a black tracksuit and a jacket with reflective markings

d) a black tracksuit, a jacket with reflective markings and reflective strips positioned on the cyclist’s ankles and knees.

The results are striking: “Overall, drivers identified the largest number of cyclists wearing the vest plus the ankle and knee reflectors (90% correctly recognized), followed by the reflective vest alone (50%), the fluorescent clothing (15%), and lastly black clothing (2%).”

These results mirror research findings on the visibility of pedestrians at night and can be explained by a concept known as biological motion— that is, “our visual sensitivity to patterns of human motion”.

A reflective jacket, while more effective than simple black clothing, limits reflective material to the rider’s torso which, according to Professor Wood and her colleagues “presents much less motion information to approaching drivers”.

Reflective strips on the knees and ankles, on the other hand, move up and down as the cyclist moves, helping drivers to better recognize the object in front of them as a moving cyclist, as opposed to a simple light source3.

This finding seems to lead to an obvious recommendation for cyclists: if you want to maximize your safety at night, don’t just wear reflective clothing; ensure that the reflective clothing includes reflective strips worn on the ankles and knees.

But as we know, road cyclists can be a fickle, fashion-conscious bunch.


Researchers have long shown that cyclists know the benefits of reflective clothing but choose not to wear it. This might not be surprising when considering the fashion- and performance-conscious road riding scene.

Reflective clothing has traditionally lacked the aesthetic appeal and performance of other, more stylish kit options, while also being associated with casual or commuter riding. But now, with major kit brands getting on board, reflective gear is being designed for the performance market.

Sugoi, Proviz, Hey Reflect’o and Specialized are among brands to have developed reflective jackets that stand out impressively when lit up by car headlights and other artificial light sources. And then there are the products that harness the power of biomotion to further increase rider visibility.

Giro has developed impressively reflective cycling shoes, Castelli and Sugoi are among those to have made reflective overshoes, and the likes of Pactimo and Proviz have made winter tights with large reflective panels below the knee.

1. According to the 2009 literature review, yellow was found to be the most visible non-fluoro color in six trials. White was more visible than grey and black in three trials.

2. Interestingly, while Wood and colleagues found that cyclists generally tend to overestimate how visible they are to other road users, they underestimated how visible they would be while wearing reflective strips on their ankles and knees.

3. Professor Wood and her colleagues showed in a subsequent paper that the use of bike lights reduced the effectiveness of reflective ankle and knee strips. Wood offers a simple explanation for this surprising finding: “This pattern may have resulted from the bicycle light (mounted on the handlebars) acting as a glare source that reduced the drivers’ ability to see the reflective markings on the ankles and knees.” While Wood et al. don’t say as much, it would seem that the combination of reflective ankle and knees strips + lights, while detracting from the visibility of the reflective items, is still more visible than lights on their own.

City councilor eyes law on reflective vests

A CITY councilor is pushing for an ordinance requiring all motorcycle users, including the driver and passengers, to wear reflective vests when traveling along Davao City’s roads especially at night time.

Councilor Jesus Joseph Zozobrado, on Tuesday during the regular session, said his proposed ordinance will provide an “additional blanket of security” for motorcycle drivers as this will allow the other motorists to see them at night.

“Motorcycle riders need to be visible if they want to be safe on the road and the best way to do that is to pass an ordinance that will make the wearing of fluorescent or high-visibility clothing part of their gear,” Zozobrado said during his privilege speech.

“We need to strictly regulate the use of motorcycles. After all, this is not just for our safety but primarily for the safety of the motorcycle driver and the rider,” he added.

The councilor presented data from the World Health Organization (WHO) wherein 1.25 million deaths are reported due to road crashes every year.

He also said that the WHO reported that 10,000 Filipinos die due to road crashes.

“Road crashes are the main cause of death globally, usually among people between ages 15-19 years,” Zozobrado said.

Although he said Davao City does not have an exact data of road crashes, he said the city shares similar incidents of road accidents, most of them involving motorcycles.

The councilor said motorcycle drivers who insert their vehicles in between slow-moving vehicles are one of the leading motorcycle accidents. This type of driving is prohibited by law.

He said that wearing a vest is not included in the Land Transportation Order Administrative Order No. AHS-2008-013.

The order includes the motorcycles to be registered, the use of license plates, and the rule of one back-rider.

Meanwhile, the Davao City Police Office–Traffic Group (DCPO-TG), recorded six cases in May and seven cases in June this year for reckless imprudence resulting in homicide.

While DCPO-TG registered 17 cases in May, and 16 in June for reckless imprudence resulting in serious physical injury.

Does Vehicle Color Play a Role in Apparatus Safety?

Beginning in the early 1970s, research was introduced suggesting there was a relationship between fire apparatus color and vehicle accidents. The concept presented was those lighter, brighter more visible colors would gain attention more quickly, improve reaction time, and as a result, reduce the number of visibility-related accidents.

Arguments against the color theory focused on the effectiveness of using flashing lights and sirens as warning devices, and the driving public would not quickly recognize fire vehicles if they weren’t the traditional red color.

By definition, the most visible vehicle colors are in the group of lime-green, lime-yellow, and yellow, while the most traditional apparatus colors are in the group of reds.

Where did we start?

Over the years, these issues were argued, studied, and re-argued leading to a study published in 1984 to compare the accident rates of fire apparatus consisting of two distinct colors —lime-yellow and red.

That multi-city study involved nine departments with an aggregate of more than 750,000 runs. All fire apparatus in the study consisted of engines and aerials. Five cities used red and four cities used the lime-yellow apparatus. The results showed the five “red” cities had accident rates higher than the four “lime-yellow” cities. The overall average was 31.9 accidents/100,000 runs of red apparatus vs. 15.3 accidents/100,000 runs of lime-yellow apparatus.  Stated another way, the red apparatus had an accident rate almost double the lime-yellow rate.

While the data pointed toward lower accident rates with the use of the yellow group of colors, enough questions were raised to indicate more research would be helpful.

Therefore, a second study, published in 1995 with more precise controls was initiated and dealt with four years of data and analyzed one large department (Dallas, TX), which had both a red or red/white fleet and a lime-yellow fleet. The single department approach was done to reduce variables, which included training, weather, language usage, apparatus maintenance, community culture, law enforcement, insurance requirements, and fire department response policies. Only pumpers/engines were considered to control the variable of vehicle size. The actual police reports for each event were studied to have an accurate knowledge of what occurred.

This study involved a comprehensive method of analysis and was published as original research in research in 1995 in the “Journal of Safety Research” by the National Safety Council. It was peer-reviewed by a panel of anonymous experts to assure accuracy, reliable methodology, and results. There were fewer runs than the prior evaluation but limiting the variables as much as possible allowed a more precise computation of accident rates. The research revealed lime-yellow pumpers were statistically safer than red or red-white fire pumpers.

The conclusion of the study stated: “…the likelihood of having a visibility-related multiple-vehicle accident or a visibility-related single-vehicle accident for a red or red-white fire pumper is greater than for a lime-yellow or lime-yellow/white fire pumper. Perhaps it is more than three times as great.” The results confirm color visibility reduces accidents and when accidents do occur, they are less severe.

Where are we now?

The research presented above supports the concept that colors that are represented at the peak of the visual spectrum, contribute to a lower accident rate for fire apparatus.

Since then, the NFPA has issued several standards revisions for fire apparatus which include updated warning light and audible devices, recommendations based on new and improved technologies, and enhanced utilization of retro-reflective materials.

It is appropriate to ask the question “Does the use of a high-visibility color still have an impact on fire apparatus accident reduction?”

To that end, an analysis was performed starting in 2018 and took into account runs and accidents on a sample of fire departments representing the high visibility colors—lime-green, lime-yellow, and yellow—and departments representing the darker, traditional colors—red, red-white, and red-black—fire vehicles. As in the 1984 study, an emphasis was placed on accumulating a high number of apparatus runs. The focus was for the years 2013 through 2016. Among the differences included in this study was the use of apparatus manufactured to the updated NFPA apparatus standards.

The 12 fire departments that fully completed the survey questionnaires were used in the study, 6 with red engines and 6 with lime-green, lime-yellow, or yellow engines. For the four years over 2,600,000 runs were accumulated. The fire departments are listed in the associated bar graph.

The results compare the accident rates per 100,000 runs. It was found on average than those departments using red on their engines had an accident rate almost double the departments using the lime-green, lime-yellow, or yellow engines. The red accident rate is 47.9 accidents per 100,000 runs and the yellow group accident rate is 24.7 accidents per 100,000 runs.

What does the future hold?

The concept of using high-visibility fire apparatus color to reduce accidents was introduced in the mid-1970s. As fire apparatus were updated and modernized over the years, including improved engineering and technology, one goal was improving safety to the firefighters and the public.  The studies of how fire apparatus color impacts accident reduction now spans more than 50 years.

The visibility colors are no strangers to the motoring public and the fire service. Also, to use on emergency vehicles, it is now seen on entire classes of D.O.T highway signage as well as on high-visibility highway safety vests. Firefighters use lime-green and lime-yellow frequently including on structural firefighting garments.

It is reported intersection accidents are among the most severe and represent the largest class of serious apparatus accidents. Enhanced visibility contributes to reducing both the number of intersection accidents and the seriousness of those events.

The fire service is constantly given opportunities for enhanced safety with the expansion of visual research, emergency lights, audible devices, and retro-reflective/fluorescent materials. These improved and even novel approaches do not mean color is less important. The devices and materials that enhance detection are additive and work in concert with color. This is a primary principle of building the safest possible apparatus to reduce or eliminate accidents and injuries.

The bottom line is color plays an important role in the safety and the use of lime-green, lime-yellow, or yellow as a visibility color substantially enhances safe operations. Because of the consistency of the ways the eyes see, the safety effects of color through visibility remain unchanged over time and will continue.